In the past few years, strains of drug resistant Mtb have become prevalent. In fact, resistance is so wide spread that it is now being classified as multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) and extreme-drug resistant (XDR-TB). Two of the world’s most populous countries, India and China, account for more than 50% of the world’s MDR-TB cases.
Recent reports have also confirmed a new strain of existing Mtb which is completely untreatable and has been designated as Totally drug resistance TB (TDR-TB). Indeed, strains of Mtb have even evolved resistance to all major available anti-TB drugs. India (2012) is the third country in which a total drug-resistant form of the TB has emerged, following cases documented in Italy in 2007 and Iran in 2009. There is a need for a more readily available treatment that is effective against both sensitive and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis is evident.